Do you know such a person as Charles Darwin? I bet all of you know this world -famous scientist… And the evolution theory is also well-known to you. Charles Darwin often stands out even after his death. It is often thought Charles Darwin to be a true genius. I agree with this point of view as well. Simply by own teaching, new ideas and thoughts, Darwin has made people think different and see themselves in another way.
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To crown it all, these ideas contributed greatly to the world science as the whole and the world development. Where and when this genius was born? These questions are always actual and curios. Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England on 12th of February He was brought up in a big but wealthy family, being the fifth of six children. Being a child, Charles started to show his big interest in nature. He started to collect different plants and items, analyze them, making significant conclusions. It seems that young Charles was guided by these words. So, young Darwin decided to leave that university.
The fact that Charles Darwin was a participant of a round-the-world journey is really worth mentioning. This journey meant a lot to Darwin. It was like a true lifetime experience and a real school for him. He was working as a geologist, botanist and scientist so hard to understand the essence of everything around him. Charles Darwin managed to collect valuable information, which helped him a lot in the development of the evolution theory.
He was married with his cousin, Emma Darwin nee Wedgwood. Together they have 10 children.
Unfortunately, three of them died being babies. The asteroid Darwin was named in honor of Charles Darwin. She has studied the social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees for over 40 years, and is thus considered the foremost expert on chimpanzees. She studied at Darwin College in Cambridge and holds several honorary doctorates from universities such as Syracuse University, Rutgers University, the University of Liverpool, and the University of Toronto, among others.
Goodall has conducted most of her research, starting in with no scientific training, at Gombe Stream National Park, which is located in the western Kigoma region of Tanzania, on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. Goodall advocates for chimpanzee welfare, the conservation of biodiversity, and general stewardship of the Earth. The research conducted by Goodall at Gombe Stream not only is scientifically important but also benefits the park itself.
Today, Goodall devotes virtually all of her time to advocacy on behalf of chimpanzees and the environment, traveling nearly days a year. It is the world's largest chimpanzee sanctuary outside of Africa. Web resource: The Jane Goodall Institute. Alan Guth. Alan Guth is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, who currently serves as the Victor Weisskopf Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Guth is the originator of the inflationary cosmology, a theory of the universe that answers the conundrum posed by the Big Bang of why the universe appears flat, homogeneous, and isotropic, when one would expect on the basis of the physics of the Big Bang a highly curved, heterogeneous, and anisotropic universe.
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His theory, if correct, would explain the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos. Guth's first step to developing his theory of inflation occurred at Cornell in , when he attended a lecture by Robert Dicke about the flatness problem of the universe. Dicke explained how the flatness problem showed that something significant was missing from the Big Bang theory at the time.
Guth first made public his ideas on inflation at a seminar in after he submitted his paper, titled "The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems," to the journal Physical Review.
In , he was awarded the Fundamental Physics Prize. Much of Guth's current work concerns the density fluctuations arising from inflation, such as the implications of novel forms of inflation and whether the underlying theory can be made more rigorous.
Guth is also interested in pursuing the possibility of inflation in "brane world" models, which propose that our universe is a four-dimensional membrane floating in a higher-dimensional space. Web resource: Alan Guth's Home Page. Lene Vestergaard Hau. One of her well-known achievements is using a superfluid to slow a beam of light to a standstill.ceisorsimona.gq
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This work led to further experiments on the transfer of light to matter, then from matter back into light, which led to important implications for quantum encryption and quantum computing. Hau and her associates at Harvard University have demonstrated exquisite control over light and matter in several experiments, but her experiment with two condensates is one of the most compelling.
In , they successfully transferred a qubit from light to a matter wave and back into light, using Bose-Einstein condensates. While the matter is traveling between the two Bose-Einstein condensates, it can be trapped for minutes, then reshaped into something else. This novel form of quantum control has implications for the developing fields of quantum information processing and quantum cryptography. During her doctoral studies in quantum theory at the University of Aarhus in Denmark, Hau worked on ideas similar to those involved in fiber optic cables carrying light, but her work involved strings of atoms in a silicon crystal carrying electrons.
Hau's latest research has continued to be centered on cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. Her group uses laser cooling to efficiently precool atoms to temperatures in the micro-kelvin range. Recently, the Hau group succeeded in reducing the light speedinitially to 17 meters per second, and later to almost zero m.
Ultra-slow light creates a unique new tool for probing the fundamental properties of Bose-Einstein condensates. Stephen Hawking. Stephen Hawking is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist. Hawking is known for his work on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called "Hawking radiation. Hawking attended Oxford University as an undergraduate, and then Cambridge University for his graduate studies. When Hawking began his graduate studies, there was much debate in the physics community about the prevailing theories of the creation of the universe.
Inspired by Roger Penrose's theorem of a spacetime singularity in the center of black holes, Hawking applied the same thinking to the entire universe, and during he wrote his thesis on this topic. The thesis made a seminal contribution to Big Bang cosmology. He has authored several popular science publications on cosmology, including A Brief History of Time, which remained on the best-seller list of the British Sunday Times for weeks, and The Universe in a Nutshell.
He recently published My Brief History , which is about his journey from a post-war London boy to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Hawking, who has suffered for many years from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Lou Gehrig's disease , has received numerous awards, including the Special Fundamental Physics Prize in , the Copley Medal in , and the Albert Einstein Award in Web resource: Stephen Hawking's Home Page.
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Peter Higgs. Peter Higgs is a theoretical physicist and emeritus professor at the University of Edinburgh. He is best known for his work in the s on a theory now known as the "Higgs mechanism," which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson sometimes popularly called the "God particle" , and which is generally accepted as a crucial element in the Standard Model of particle physics. According to the Standard Model, the Higgs mechanism is the means by which the fundamental particles of the Standard Model acquire their individual masses.
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The discovery of the Higgs boson validated the last untested area of the Standard Model's approach to fundamental particles and forces, and now inspires physicists to probe for still deeper theories and discoveries in particle physics. Higgs studied for his doctorate in molecular physics at King's College London, where he wrote his thesis on problems in the theory of molecular vibrations. He retired in , when he became an emeritus professor at the University of Edinburgh. Web resource: Peter Higgs's Home Page. Leroy Hood. Leroy Hood is co-founder and President of the Institute for Systems Biology, a relatively new field of biology which he has helped to pioneer.
In , he won the Fritz J. Russ Prize for automating DNA sequencing that revolutionized biomedicine and forensic science. Hood and his colleagues at Cal Tech created the technological foundation for the sciences of genomics and proteomics by fostering the development of five groundbreaking instruments: the protein sequencer, the protein synthesizer, the DNA synthesizer, the automated DNA sequencer, and the ink-jet DNA synthesizer.
Not only did these instruments help to decipher biological information, they also introduced the concept of high-throughput data accumulation through automation and parallelization of protein and DNA chemistries. The ISB was established to integrate biology, technology, and computation to create a new approach to the study of biological systems from an integrated or whole-system perspective. One of the signature projects of Hood's own research group within the ISB is the "predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory" "P4" approach to medicine. Hood has received several notable awards, including the National Medal of Science in , the Heinz Award in , and the Albert Lasker Award in , among others.
Web resource: The Institute for Systems Biology. Eric R. Kandel also founded the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior at Columbia. Kandel received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard, for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system, and its relation to physiological basis of memory storage in the brain. Kandel attended New York University's Medical School, where he later took a position in the Departments of Physiology and Psychiatry; eventually, he formed the Division of Neurobiology and Behavior there.
Kandel has authored many books, including Principles of Neural Science , which is often used as a textbook and reference text in medical schools. Web resource: Eric R. Kandel's Home Page. Andrew H. He is a Precambrian paleontologist and biogeochemist. Knoll is primarily known for discovering microscopic traces of early life "microfossils" in numerous locations, including Spitsbergen, Greenland, Siberia, China, Namibia, western North America, and Australia.